The fennel plant is known as a plant that is consumed in many different ways today. The fennel plant, which is widely consumed as fennel tea, is not only used as a tea. On the contrary, while there are products such as fennel honey and fennel onions in the food industry, it is possible to find products such as fennel oil in the cosmetics sector. It would not be bad to learn more about the fennel plant, which has such different uses and consumption patterns.

what is fennel
  • It is known that the fennel plant, which has recently become very popular among herbal teas and is a matter of curiosity for what it is consumed, is a very useful plant species that grows in the Mediterranean climate.
  • The fennel plant, which is a plant from the Parsley family and can grow up to two meters high , has a green body and yellow fennel flowers. appears as a plantFennel, which ripens in the autumn and becomes suitable for harvesting, requires delicate harvesting.
  • Planting fennel is done in the spring. Growing like a bush, fennel distinguishes itself with its scent. Fennel seeds are placed in the soil by hand or planted in the field with a seeder, which is a well-known seed throwing tool by those who are interested in agriculture.
  • It is generally consumed dry and dried after being collected.
  • While the dried onion and leaf parts of the fennel plant are used in meals, the seeds are used to prepare fennel tea, which has become frequently consumed recently.
  • Fennel can be mixed with anise. Fennel and anise plants, which are from the same family, are similar to each other especially in terms of smell, but they are different species.
  • It can also be mixed with fennel tangle. Wild fennel is also called tangle in some regions.

What are the Benefits of Fennel? What Is It Good For?

There is a lot of information about what fennel is good for and what it is not. One of the first things that comes to mind is the question of whether fennel weakens . Well, for those who say what fennel is good for and what are the benefits of fennel plant, there are many situations known as the benefits of fennel .

  • First of all, fennel, which reduces the severity and number of cough as it positively affects the respiratory tract, also reduces chronic headaches such as migraine, as well as pain caused by the nervous system, as it positively affects the nervous system.
  • On the other hand, it is also known that if fennel is consumed to a certain extent in the puerperium with expert opinion, it increases the efficiency of breast milk.
  • Fennel, which regulates heart rhythm, also positively affects blood pressure.
  • In addition, it promotes the proliferation of red blood cells.
  • Fennel, which has a great effect on keeping cholesterol at an ideal level, also protects cardiovascular health thanks to the rich fibers it contains.
  • In addition, fennel, which is seen as an important carminative, is generally recommended for those who have indigestion problems.
  • Fennel is also known for its benefits for the skin. Fennel, which contains vitamins A, C and E, as well as important substances for skin health such as potassium, magnesium and zinc, beautifies the skin as an antioxidant and provides a more vigorous appearance.
  • Fennel is also beneficial for the eyes and strengthens the eyesight. With the effect of vitamin A, it is a good supporter especially for those who spend a lot of time on the computer.
  • Finally, it is known that the amount of estrogen in the body increases with the effect of the flavonoid substance found in the fennel seed, and as a result, the textural formation of the cells in the breasts increases.
  • Fennel is also a medicinal herb for menstrual pain. You can relax your body by drinking fennel tea, especially if you are experiencing gas compression during the menstrual period.

What are the Benefits of Fennel Tea?

Fennel tea
  • It is known that fennel tea was used for therapeutic purposes even in ancient times . The fact that fennel tea has many benefits for the human body and health makes it preferable.
  • One of the benefits of fennel tea is that it increases breast milk.
  • Consulting your doctor before taking advantage of the positive relationship of fennel breast milk will of course ensure the safest progress.
  • Among other benefits, it is good for hypertension and balancing blood pressure.
  • It is among the benefits of fennel tea that it has a positive effect on respiratory diseases and is good for stomach ailments.
  • It is generally accepted that fennel tea, which regulates stomach disorders, is also very effective in regulating the digestive system.
  • Finally, it is also common to think that fennel tea, which has recently been seen as an important aid in balancing the nervous system, is perfect for reducing headaches.

What are Fennel Side Effects and Harms?

fennel plant

The risk of encountering the harms of fennel, which is consumed in the amount recommended by experts, is very low.

  • However, when the measures recommended by experts are exceeded, nausea and pain in the form of contractions in the stomach may occur.
  • In addition to these, difficulty in breathing, deterioration of heart rhythm, palpitations, and vomiting are among the side effects.
  • For this reason, it would be appropriate to get an expert’s opinion on the consumption of products containing fennel, especially fennel tea .
  • It may be healthier for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding to consume fennel under the supervision of a doctor. On the other hand, people with chronic diseases focusing on kidney, heart and liver can be advised to be careful while consuming fennel and not to overdo it.
  • Fennel is also not suitable for people with conditions that cause severe out-of-control attacks, such as epilepsy.

How to Brew Fennel Tea?

what is fennel
  • Fennel tea is brewed with a different method, unlike the brewing methods seen in other herbal teas.
  • The seeds of fennel are separated and the seeds are crushed and the crushed seeds are boiled in water.
  • If the effects of fennel are desired to be seen efficiently, grinding or crushing fennel seeds is important in terms of revealing the essence.
  • The boiled tea is left to infuse for 30 minutes.
  • When the intense scent of fennel and its sharp taste are effective in me, it is recommended to consume fennel tea immediately after the brewing process and not to wait. If fennel is left unfiltered for a long time after brewing, it makes the water taste bitter.
  • Fennel tea can be purchased packaged in herbalists and markets. Prices of fennel teas in different sizes and contents vary depending on whether they are natural, organic or processed.

Learn about the cooking and medicinal benefits of fennel

Fennel, (Foeniculum vulgare), perennial herb of the carrot family grown for its edible shoots, leaves, and seeds. Native to southern Europe and Asia Minor, fennel is cultivated in temperate regions worldwide and is considered an invasive species in Australia and parts of the United States. All parts of the plant are aromatic and used in flavouring, and the bulblike stem base of Florence fennel (variety azoricum) and the blanched shoots are eaten as a vegetable. The seeds and extracted oil are suggestive of anise in aroma and taste and are used for scenting soaps and perfumes and for flavouring candies, liqueurs, medicines, and foods, particularly pastries, sweet pickles, and fish.

The cultivated plant is about 1 metre tall and has stalks with finely divided leaves composed of many linear or awl-shaped segments. The rayish compound umbels bear small yellow flowers. The small dry fruits are greenish brown to yellowish brown oblong ovals about 6 mm long with five prominent longitudinal dorsal ridges. The seeds contain 3 to 4 percent essential oil; the principal components are anethole and fenchone. Giant fennel (Ferula communis), a member of the same family, is native to the Mediterranean region. Its stems grow to about 3 metres (10 feet) high and are used for tinder. Hog’s fennel, or sulfurweed (Peucedanum officinale), is another member of the Apiaceae family and is used in traditional medicine in parts of Europe. Fennel flower, or black cumin (Nigella sativa), is an unrelated plant of the family Ranunculaceae; its seeds are used as a spice.

Types of Fennel

There are two main types of fennel to grow in your garden, depending on how you plan to use it. Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum) is used more like a vegetable, grown for its bulbous stem. The main species plant, common or herb fennel, doesn’t produce much of a bulb and is typically grown for its foliage.

Florence fennel cultivars include:

  • ‘Solaris’ produces large, semi-flat bulbs that are resistant to bolting.
  • ‘Zefa fino’ is a large variety that’s ready for harvest in 80 days and is bolt resistant.
  • ‘Orion’ is ready to harvest in 80 days and has large, thick, rounded bulbs with a crisp texture.

Herb fennel varieties include:

  • ‘Dulce’ has an especially sweet flavor.
  • ‘Rubrum’ is commonly known as bronze fennel or red fennel for its bronze foliage.

Fennel vs. Dill

At first glance, fennel and dill foliage can look quite similar. The leaves are feathery, bright yellow-green, and branching. However, fennel leaves tend to be longer than those of dill. And the herbs have distinct flavors. 

Harvesting Fennel

Harvest fennel leaves as needed throughout the growing season for fresh use. It’s used in both raw and cooked dishes. Frequent harvesting will promote a bushier growth habit and consequently more harvestable foliage. But don’t trim off more than a third of the plant at once. Bulbs can be harvested as soon as the base of the stem becomes swollen. Pull up the plants, and store the bulbs unwashed in the refrigerator for up to five days before use.

How to Grow Fennel in Pots

You can easily grow fennel in containers. In fact, this can be a good option to prevent the plant from self-seeding in your garden where you don’t want it. The container should be at least 10 inches deep with a similar width, and it should have drainage holes. An unglazed clay container is ideal to allow excess soil moisture to escape through its walls.


If you wish, you can pinch off flowers as they appear to prevent the plant from going to seed. This keeps the foliage growing and tasting its best for as long as possible. It also stops the plant from freely self-seeding in your garden. However, if you want the seeds for harvesting or self-seeding, allow the flowers to bloom.

Propagating Fennel

Fennel has a long taproot and thus doesn’t divide very easily. The better method is to propagate by seeds. This is both an easy and inexpensive way to get new plants, especially if you live where fennel can only be grown as an annual. Here’s how:

  1. Watch for seed heads to form on a mature fennel plant at the end of its growing season.
  2. Shake the heads over a sheet or tarp to collect the seeds within.
  3. Spread the seeds in a single layer in a cool, dark, dry spot to fully dry them for a week or two.
  4. Store the seeds in an airtight labeled container, and plant them in the garden the following spring.

How to Grow Fennel From Seed

Soak seeds in water for a day or two prior to planting to speed up germination. Fennel seeds direct sown in the garden will germinate in a week or two. Keep the soil evenly moist but not soggy as you wait for germination. Seeds also can be started indoors about four weeks before your last projected frost date in the spring under grow lights. Be sure to gradually acclimate indoor seedlings to outdoor conditions before planting them in the garden after the weather warms.

Potting and Repotting Fennel

An all-purpose, well-draining potting mix is typically fine for fennel. For container growth, aim to choose a pot that will accommodate the plant’s mature size right from the start to avoid having to repot. Fennel doesn’t like its roots disturbed. So that means using biodegradable pots for seedlings that can be planted directly in the soil.


If frost is expected in your area, go ahead and harvest the rest of your fennel plant. Otherwise the foliage will likely be damaged or killed. In mild climates, fennel plants can be overwintered for a second growing season, but they usually degrade after that. If unseasonably cold weather is expected in those climates, cover the plants with row covers or another form of protection.

Common Pests and Plant Diseases

Fennel rarely suffers from serious pest or disease problems, though caterpillars might chew on the leaves. This is best handled simply by picking them off the plants by hand. Most often, they are parsley worm caterpillars, which evolve into black swallowtail butterflies, beneficial pollinators for the garden. You can, therefore, choose to ignore these green caterpillars with black and yellow bands if they’re not causing a major issue. Aphids also can sometimes be an issue, but they can be treated by strong sprays of water to dislodge them. Avoid using chemical pesticides on edible herbs. In soil with poor drainage, root rot can occur. If you have heavy soil, try a raised garden bed or container to achieve optimal soil conditions.