Beech wood is a high quality wood used in products that require solid wood, especially in the furniture industry.
The hornbeam tree is one of the most preferred trees in the furniture industry and sectors that need wood. Its timber is a highly preferred wood species. Hornbeam, which can also be used as fuel, does not require gentle and soft conditions. Due to its solid and durability, it meets the wood needs in many fields from the toy industry to the ship industry. Hornbeam wood and beech wood are often mixed together. However, their structures and physical properties are different from each other. In this article you will find compilation information about the hornbeam tree.
The hornbeam tree is a member of the birch and hornbeam families. Birch and Hornbeam; are plant families that include forest trees such as hornbeam, birch, alder, and hazelnut. Timber trees such as oak and chestnut are also similar to hornbeam.
It is quite common in Turkey. There are hornbeam forests in the Black Sea. It is possible to come across hornbeam in almost every region of Turkey. It is mostly grown in Aegean, Marmara, Thrace, Northern and Eastern Anatolia. There are also small hornbeam forests in Bolu, Kastamonu, Çoruh and Amanoslar. Hornbeam is also found in mixed forests in coastal regions. There are over 25 hornbeam varieties grown in Asia, Europe and America in the world. Ukraine, located in the north, has a lot of hornbeam forest. These species grow naturally. There are 2 types of hornbeam in Turkey.
What are its features?
The expression “Gürgen” is a word that came into our language from the Armenian word “Garbeni”. Some children may also be called “Horgen” because of its robustness and durability. Hornbeam wood has an indented, corrugated trunk in gray tone. Some species can reach 20 meters in length. They usually reach 7-8 meters in length. It is not a kind tree type. Even arid lands can be enough for it to grow. However, it grows very well in fertile, strong and wet soils. As the soil quality decreases, the growth of hornbeam also decreases.
They do not like the light very much, they prefer the shade. Hornbeam can grow even in calcareous, stony and poor soils. Due to these features, it is a filling tree for oak forests. They can grow together in the same areas. During the winter, the leaves are shed. It leaves and blooms in spring. In autumn, nut-like fruits grow.
It is a type of tree that can be found and processed in all seasons. Its wood is white, heavy and rather hard. It has pointed and hard-shelled fruits. Its fruits are covered with a three-ball fruit cover. The leaves are egg-like and have toothed edges. It has a root system that spreads horizontally or vertically. The hardness of the soil and its type are effective in the spread of the roots.
What are the places where hornbeam is used?
As we mentioned at the beginning, the hornbeam tree is an indispensable tree in the furniture industry due to its hard and durable timber. When the furniture manufacturers sell their products, they specifically indicate if the product is made of hornbeam. Like its structure, hornbeam has a durable and qualified image.
It is the raw material of quality wood products.
The hornbeam is a tree that does not break easily. For this reason, it is more difficult to process. Masters in the furniture industry have a hard time working with hornbeam. In order to process the hornbeam, which is also less flexible, it is necessary to exert a little more effort than other trees. For this reason, those who want to buy quality furniture generally prefer products made of hornbeam.
It is a type of wood preferred by many industries that demand solid wood, especially the furniture industry. Hornbeam is used in pressure-resistant wooden parts. It is used in the production of gear wheels, lathe tools, ship keels, wooden machine parts, mining poles, shoe molds, levers, wooden sports equipment, wooden kitchen tools and utensils, agricultural tools and shuttles.
Some of the wooden products produced from hornbeam are: Vegetable crate, dinner spoons, cutting board, honey stick, colander, tongs, ladle, hardwood, pickaxe, shovel and cutting handles, chair, stair step, toys, canvas mechanism, clothes hanger, mallet, foldable dough board, foldable tables, stair railings, stools, sun loungers…
Beech wood is not a tree used for human health except for its use as timber.
What are the Hornbeam Types?
There are over 25 varieties of the hornbeam tree around the world. The names of the two types of hornbeam found in Turkey are “Common hornbeam” and “Eastern hornbeam”. Some of the other hornbeam varieties are: American hornbeam, European hornbeam, Japanese hornbeam, Sawa hornbeam, Chonowski hornbeam, Aka-shide hornbeam, Turkzaninov hornbeam, Farges hornbeam.
Adi Hornbeam: It is a hornbeam variety that can grow up to 20 meters in length depending on soil conditions, and can reach 30 meters in very rare cases. Its timber is very valuable. It can grow in combination with oak and beech trees. Unlike other hornbeam varieties, it prefers soft and moist soils. One of the reasons for its long stature is because of its soil preference. Its roots expand horizontally. It can shoot even when cut. Its hard wood is used in wooden tools and construction work. It is also used as firewood. It is preferred as fuel, especially in Europe, because it emits more heat and burns slowly like coal. Common hornbeam, which grows in Asia, Europe and the Caucasus, is seen in the forests of the Marmara and Black Sea regions in Turkey.
It rarely reaches 10 meters in length. It is native to northern Iran and southeastern Europe. It can be seen in dry, hot and low places. Its leaves are smaller than the common hornbeam.
The American hornbeam is a hornbeam variety that grows in North America and can reach up to 15 meters in length. The American hornbeam, which is described as the ‘golden tree’ in Canada, is grown by grafting it from the European hornbeam. The wood is useful.
The European hornbeam is also a hornbeam that can reach up to 20 meters in length. It does not grow in areas other than 57 degrees latitude in the north. It is abundant in the areas and forests bordering the Black Sea, and is also common in the Black Sea Region.
What are the Differences Between Hornbeam and Beech?
Beech tree and beech tree are very confused because they are related and similar in structure. However, there are differences between their morphological features. It is really difficult to understand the difference between hornbeam and beech. For this reason, some furniture manufacturers can use beech trees and market them as hornbeam, as they are cheaper.
Beech is a much harder wood than beech. The reason why hornbeam is harder is that the amount of cellulose in the cell wall is high. For this reason, hornbeam, which is a much harder and heavier tree, also has less water. It has a color close to pink. Since Russian beech is cheap in Turkey, it is generally used as hornbeam. However, these trees are of medium hardness, softer than hornbeam and the amount of water is quite high. It has colors close to red, between yellow and orange. The leaf of the hornbeam is recessed and toothed, the beech is straight and toothless. The stem of the beech is cylindrical, the stem of the hornbeam is curved, recessed and corrugated. Beech is sensitive to cold and arid climates, hornbeam can grow in bad conditions. The buds of hornbeam are shorter than that of beech. Beech is a member of the Beech family, while hornbeam belongs to the Birch family. Other names of beech are ‘akhuş’ and ‘alder’. Also, another name for beech is ‘beech beech’. For this reason, beech and hornbeam trees may be confused.